To stabilise ferroelectric-Tetragonal phase of BaTiO 3, the double-doping of Bi and Mn up to 0.5 mol% was studied. Upon increasing the Bi content in BaTiO 3:Mn:Bi, the tetragonal crystal-lattice-constants a and c shrank and elongated, respectively, resulting in an enhancement of tetragonal anisotropy, and the temperature-range of the ferroelectric tetragonal phase expanded. X-ray absorption fine structure measurements confirmed that Bi and Mn were located at the A(Ba)-site and B(Ti)-site, respectively, and Bi was markedly displaced from the centrosymmetric position in the BiO 12 cluster. This A-site substitution of Bi also caused fluctuations of B-site atoms. Magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed a change in the Mn valence from +4 to +3 upon addition of the same molar amount of Bi as Mn, probably resulting from a compensating behaviour of the Mn at Ti 4+ sites for donor doping of Bi 3+ into the Ba 2+ site. Because addition of La 3+ instead of Bi 3+ showed neither the enhancement of the tetragonal anisotropy nor the stabilisation of the tetragonal phase, these phenomena in BaTiO 3:Mn:Bi were not caused by the Jahn-Teller effect of Mn 3+ in the MnO 6 octahedron, but caused by the Bi-displacement, probably resulting from the effect of the 6 s lone-pair electrons in Bi 3+.
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