Here, we report a new approach for the biofabrication of protein-immobilized gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), using oxidoreductase with gold-binding peptide-tagged recombinant proteins. The reduction of Au ions to Au0 was achieved using a natural electron-donating cofactor, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, which was regenerated by the glycerol dehydrogenase (GLD) enzyme. First, we selected the A3 peptide (AYSSGAPPMPPF) as a gold binding moiety. The A3 peptide was introduced to the C-terminus of fusion proteins of immunoglobulin G (IgG)-binding domains of protein G and protein A. In the presence of the recombinant protein, the GLD-catalyzed cofactor reduction resulted in the efficient in situ fabrication of Au NPs immobilized with the fusion protein. Moreover, the protein-immobilized Au NPs were shown to have IgG binding activity. Although the A3 peptide had the ability to stabilize Au NPs, the results suggested that its binding affinity for Au NPs was unexpectedly weaker than that of His-tag. A cysteine residue was thus introduced to a recombinant protein adjacent to the A3 peptide. Finally, an artificial peptide, comprising A3 sequence with the C-terminal single cysteine residue, enabled the stable display of a fusion protein while maintaining its IgG binding activity through the Au-S bond. This enzyme-assisted one-pot methodology for protein-Au NPs conjugation offers one potent route for the facile fabrication of biomolecule-decorated metal NPs.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Surfaces and Interfaces