Epithelial and Connective Tissue Sealing around Titanium Implants with Various Typical Surface Finishes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Soft tissue barrier around a dental implant plays a crucial role in the success of dental implants because it protects underlying hard tissue structures. A number of surface alteration procedures of implants have been introduced to improve bone-implant contact, but there has been little research on the peri-implant soft tissue (PIS) seal. The present study focuses on the "biologic width" of epithelial and connective tissue seals around implants with various typical surface finishes by testing surfaces that have been machined (Ms), roughened by sandblasting and acid etching (Rs), treated hydrothermally with CaCl2 (Cs), or anodized (As). Ms, Rs, and As techniques are commonly used to finish surfaces of commercially available dental implants. The Cs technique was reported to produce strong epithelial cell-titanium adhesion. For culture study, rat oral epithelial cells (OECs) and fibroblasts were cultured on Ms, Rs, Cs, and As titanium plates. There was less cell adherence of OECs and more collagen expression when cultured on Rs and As plates than when cultured on Ms and Cs plates. For the in vivo study, implants with Ms, Rs, Cs, and As surfaces were placed in the rats' oral cavity. Although the PIS structure was similar to that around natural teeth, a horseradish peroxide assay revealed that the sealing ability around the Ms and Rs implants was weaker than that around Cs implants. After 16 weeks, Rs implants exhibited peri-implant epithelial apical down-growth and had lost bone support. Thus, although a smooth surface (Ms and Cs) showed better epithelial attachment, rough surfaces (Rs and As) are more suitable for binding to the connective tissue. Strong epithelium-implant attachment seems to be a fundamental defense against foreign body penetration. Selecting suitable surfaces to ensure strong sealing is important for implant success.

Original languageEnglish
JournalACS Biomaterials Science and Engineering
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019

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Titanium
Tissue
Dental prostheses
Seals
Rats
Bone
Surface testing
Peroxides
Fibroblasts
Collagen
Etching
Assays
Adhesion
Acids
Epithelial Cells

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering

Cite this

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title = "Epithelial and Connective Tissue Sealing around Titanium Implants with Various Typical Surface Finishes",
abstract = "Soft tissue barrier around a dental implant plays a crucial role in the success of dental implants because it protects underlying hard tissue structures. A number of surface alteration procedures of implants have been introduced to improve bone-implant contact, but there has been little research on the peri-implant soft tissue (PIS) seal. The present study focuses on the {"}biologic width{"} of epithelial and connective tissue seals around implants with various typical surface finishes by testing surfaces that have been machined (Ms), roughened by sandblasting and acid etching (Rs), treated hydrothermally with CaCl2 (Cs), or anodized (As). Ms, Rs, and As techniques are commonly used to finish surfaces of commercially available dental implants. The Cs technique was reported to produce strong epithelial cell-titanium adhesion. For culture study, rat oral epithelial cells (OECs) and fibroblasts were cultured on Ms, Rs, Cs, and As titanium plates. There was less cell adherence of OECs and more collagen expression when cultured on Rs and As plates than when cultured on Ms and Cs plates. For the in vivo study, implants with Ms, Rs, Cs, and As surfaces were placed in the rats' oral cavity. Although the PIS structure was similar to that around natural teeth, a horseradish peroxide assay revealed that the sealing ability around the Ms and Rs implants was weaker than that around Cs implants. After 16 weeks, Rs implants exhibited peri-implant epithelial apical down-growth and had lost bone support. Thus, although a smooth surface (Ms and Cs) showed better epithelial attachment, rough surfaces (Rs and As) are more suitable for binding to the connective tissue. Strong epithelium-implant attachment seems to be a fundamental defense against foreign body penetration. Selecting suitable surfaces to ensure strong sealing is important for implant success.",
author = "Ikue Narimatsu and Ikiru Atsuta and Yasunori Ayukawa and Wakana Oshiro and Noriyuki Yasunami and Akihiro Furuhashi and Kiyoshi Koyano",
year = "2019",
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day = "1",
doi = "10.1021/acsbiomaterials.9b00499",
language = "English",
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T1 - Epithelial and Connective Tissue Sealing around Titanium Implants with Various Typical Surface Finishes

AU - Narimatsu, Ikue

AU - Atsuta, Ikiru

AU - Ayukawa, Yasunori

AU - Oshiro, Wakana

AU - Yasunami, Noriyuki

AU - Furuhashi, Akihiro

AU - Koyano, Kiyoshi

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Soft tissue barrier around a dental implant plays a crucial role in the success of dental implants because it protects underlying hard tissue structures. A number of surface alteration procedures of implants have been introduced to improve bone-implant contact, but there has been little research on the peri-implant soft tissue (PIS) seal. The present study focuses on the "biologic width" of epithelial and connective tissue seals around implants with various typical surface finishes by testing surfaces that have been machined (Ms), roughened by sandblasting and acid etching (Rs), treated hydrothermally with CaCl2 (Cs), or anodized (As). Ms, Rs, and As techniques are commonly used to finish surfaces of commercially available dental implants. The Cs technique was reported to produce strong epithelial cell-titanium adhesion. For culture study, rat oral epithelial cells (OECs) and fibroblasts were cultured on Ms, Rs, Cs, and As titanium plates. There was less cell adherence of OECs and more collagen expression when cultured on Rs and As plates than when cultured on Ms and Cs plates. For the in vivo study, implants with Ms, Rs, Cs, and As surfaces were placed in the rats' oral cavity. Although the PIS structure was similar to that around natural teeth, a horseradish peroxide assay revealed that the sealing ability around the Ms and Rs implants was weaker than that around Cs implants. After 16 weeks, Rs implants exhibited peri-implant epithelial apical down-growth and had lost bone support. Thus, although a smooth surface (Ms and Cs) showed better epithelial attachment, rough surfaces (Rs and As) are more suitable for binding to the connective tissue. Strong epithelium-implant attachment seems to be a fundamental defense against foreign body penetration. Selecting suitable surfaces to ensure strong sealing is important for implant success.

AB - Soft tissue barrier around a dental implant plays a crucial role in the success of dental implants because it protects underlying hard tissue structures. A number of surface alteration procedures of implants have been introduced to improve bone-implant contact, but there has been little research on the peri-implant soft tissue (PIS) seal. The present study focuses on the "biologic width" of epithelial and connective tissue seals around implants with various typical surface finishes by testing surfaces that have been machined (Ms), roughened by sandblasting and acid etching (Rs), treated hydrothermally with CaCl2 (Cs), or anodized (As). Ms, Rs, and As techniques are commonly used to finish surfaces of commercially available dental implants. The Cs technique was reported to produce strong epithelial cell-titanium adhesion. For culture study, rat oral epithelial cells (OECs) and fibroblasts were cultured on Ms, Rs, Cs, and As titanium plates. There was less cell adherence of OECs and more collagen expression when cultured on Rs and As plates than when cultured on Ms and Cs plates. For the in vivo study, implants with Ms, Rs, Cs, and As surfaces were placed in the rats' oral cavity. Although the PIS structure was similar to that around natural teeth, a horseradish peroxide assay revealed that the sealing ability around the Ms and Rs implants was weaker than that around Cs implants. After 16 weeks, Rs implants exhibited peri-implant epithelial apical down-growth and had lost bone support. Thus, although a smooth surface (Ms and Cs) showed better epithelial attachment, rough surfaces (Rs and As) are more suitable for binding to the connective tissue. Strong epithelium-implant attachment seems to be a fundamental defense against foreign body penetration. Selecting suitable surfaces to ensure strong sealing is important for implant success.

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