Background: Epithelioid sarcoma is an uncommon high-grade sarcoma, mostly involving the extremities. Case presentation: A 33-year-old man was referred to our institute with a diagnosis of Volkmann's contracture with the symptom of flexion contracture of the fingers associated with swelling in his left forearm. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed abnormal signal intensity, comprising iso-signal intensity on T1- and high-signal intensity on T2-weighted images surrounding the flexor tendons in the forearm. Diagnosis of epithelioid sarcoma was made by open biopsy, and amputation at the upper arm was then undertaken. [18 F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) detected multiple lesions with an increased uptake in the right neck, the bilateral upper arms and the right thigh, as well as in the left axillary lymph nodes, with maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) ranging from 2.0 to 5.5 g/ml. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed that there was a lesion within the right thigh muscle which was suggestive of metastasis, even though the lesion was occult clinically. Conclusion: Increased uptake on FDG-PET might be representative of epithelioid sarcoma, and for this reason FDG-PET may be useful for detecting metastasis. Muscle metastasis is not well documented in epithelioid sarcoma. Accordingly, the frequency of muscle metastasis, including occult metastasis, needs to be further analyzed.
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