A 7-year-old boy with Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) developed lymphoproliferative disease (LPD) after a cord blood transplant (CBT). 3.1 x 107/kg mononuclear cells from an HLA one-locus mismatched CB were transplanted after conditioning with total body irradiation (8 Gy), cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg) and antithymocyte globulin (10 mg/kg). Complete engraftment occurred on day 33 post transplant. Despite the resolution of grade II graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), he died of lymphoma on day 130 post transplant. The tumor was of donor origin, indicating clonal proliferation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B cells. This is the first report of EBV-LPD after CBT. Post-transplant LPD can be a serious EBV-associated complication of CB grafts.
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