Neurologic complications, including meningoencephalitis, transverse myelitis, and peripheral neuropathy, have been reported in patients with acute infectious mononucleosis. Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus infections occasionally induce central nervous system lymphoma. On the other hand, central nervous system disease alone associated with Epstein-Barr virus rarely occurs in previously healthy individuals. A 15-year-old girl who developed acute disseminated encephalomyelitis-like disease presenting fever, anuresis, diplopia, and muscle weakness is described here. Clinical and neuroimaging studies led to the diagnosis of encephalomyelitis. Despite the absence of infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms, anti-Epstein-Barr virus antibody titers in serum and cerebrospinal fluid showed the virus reactivation. The copy number of Epstein-Barr virus DNA increased in cerebrospinal fluid but not in peripheral blood. Ganciclovir and repeated methyl-prednisolone pulse therapy resulted in complete resolution. Central nervous system disease on the limited intrathecal reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus in immunocompetent children should be differentiated from acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Clinical Neurology