We describe the case of a 55-year-old man with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) in first remission who underwent nonmyeloablative allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation with conditioning consisting of 4 courses of pentostatin and low-dose total body irradiation. Complete chimerism in peripheral blood was achieved on day 42 without severe myelosuppression. Concomitantly, the proviral DNA load for human T-cell leukemia virus I (HTLV-I) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells decreased below detectable limits and was still undetectable on day 270. This fact indicates that eradication of ATL cells is feasible by induction of an alloimmune response without high-dose chemoradiotherapy.
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