The evolutionarily stable (or ESS) emergence schedule for males of univoltine butterflies is analysed in an environment in which the female emergence schedule fluctuates stochastically between years. The ESS emergence curve, computed using the mutant invadability criterion, is shown to be the one that maximizes mean logarithmic lifetime mating success in the population in which it dominates. If males have accurate information about the female emergence schedule within each year, their emergence curve would evolve to the one predicted by a deterministic game model. The male emergence curve would then shift between years, closely following year to year changes in the female emergence pattern. If, instead, males have uncertainty about the female emergence schedule, the ESS male emergence curve becomes broader than the one predicted by the deterministic game model and will not track the between-year fluctuation of female emergence well. In a special case, we show how the between-year variation of mean emergence date, the variance of emergence date, the sexual difference in mean emergence dates (protandry) and the between-year correlation of mean emergence dates of both sexes should change with the degree of accuracy of information available to males.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics