Background and Methods. The prognosis in neuroblastoma, which is the most common solid tumor in children, tends to vary greatly, and many studies have demonstrated both clinical and biological factors to be closely correlated with the outcome. In order to select the optimal treatment according to the degree of malignancy of neuroblastoma, it is essential to accurately and rapidly identify any genetic heterogeneity associated with the prognosis. We assessed the status of some genetic abnormalities (MYCN amplification, deletion of the short arm of chromosome 1, DNA ploidy, and a gain of the chromosome 17q region) associated with the prognosis using several moleculat biological methods. Results and Conclusions. The combination of several molecular biological techniques is thus considered to be useful for elucidating the degree of malignancy of neuroblastoma. In particular, diagnostic analyses based on a combination of the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method and the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method may be considered to be the most effective methods for quickly and accurately evaluating any aberrations in the gene dosages associated with the patients' outcomes.
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