Expression of a gene for plastid ω-3 fatty acid desaturase and changes in lipid and fatty acid compositions in light- and dark-grown wheat leaves

Gorou Horiguchi, Hirotaka Iwakawa, Hiroaki Kodama, Naoto Kawakami, Mitsuo Nishimura, Koh Iba

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The leaves of monocotyledonous plants create a developmental sequence of cells and plastids from the base to the apical portion. We investigated fatty-acid and lipid compositions in successive leaf sections of light- and dark-grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chihoku) seedlings. The most notable change in the fatty acid composition was the increase of linolenic acid (18:3) with maturation of leaf cells, which occurred both in light- and dark-grown leaf tissues. In light-grown leaves, the increase of 18:3 with maturation was mainly attributed to the increase of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGD) and also to the increase of the 18:3 level of MGD. In dark-grown leaves, the increase of 18:3 in the leaf apex was caused by the increase of the levels of MGD and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGD) and also by the increase of the 18:3 levels of within these two lipids. Since MGD and DGD are mainly found in plastid membranes, these findings indicate that both the synthesis of galactolipids and the formation of 18:3 these lipids take place during plastid development. The plastid ω-3 fatty acid desaturase is responsible for the formation of 18:3 in plastid membrane lipids. To investigate the regulation of desaturation, we isolated a gene for wheat plastid ω-3 fatty acid desaturase (TaFAD7). The mRNA level of TaFAD7 in light-grown leaves was much higher than that in dark-grown leaves. During the greening of etiolated leaves the level of TaFAD7 mRNA increased significantly, accompanied by an increase of the 18:3 level of total fatty acids. On the other hand, the levels of TaFAD7 mRNA were almost the same in all the leaf sections of both light- and dark-grown leaf tissues. These results suggest that the effect of the expression of the TaFAD7 gene on the increase of the 18:3 level is different between the leaf development under continuous light- or dark-conditions and the light-induced greening process of etiolated leaves. The increase of 18:3 content of MGD (or MGD and DGD) with maturation is apparently regulated not solely by the level of TaFAD7 mRNA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)275-283
Number of pages9
JournalPhysiologia Plantarum
Volume96
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1996

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Genetics
  • Plant Science
  • Cell Biology

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