Four teleconnection patterns that are possibly associated with the anomalous summer climate in Japan and the surrounding regions, were extracted by applying empirical orthogonal function and regression analyses to stream function anomalies. The two teleconnection patterns prevailing over northern Eurasia, especially in early summer, called the Europe-Japan (EJ) 1 and EJ2, are linked with the variability of the Okhotsk high. The third teleconnection pattern, called the West Asia-Japan (WJ), is a stationary wave-train pattern along the upper-level subtropical jet from West Asia to the central North Pacific, which is possibly excited by the anomalous convective heating of the Indian summer monsoon. The final teleconnection pattern is identified with the Pacific-Japan (PJ), found by Nitta. Teleconnection indices that account for the variability of those patterns are also defined on a monthly basis. The PJ and WJ patterns, which are more influential teleconnection patterns than the others, are closely related to the summer temperature anomalies, especially in northern and western Japan, respectively. EJ1 and EJ2 were amplified in several extreme summers, and they played a vital role in the cool summer of 2003, along with PJ. A combination of two or three teleconnection patterns was also responsible for the occurrence of the recent extreme summers. Monitoring the major teleconnection patterns is very useful for understanding and forecasting the anomalous summer climate in East Asia.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Atmospheric Science