Bone consists of a mineral phase (carbonate apatite) and an organic phase (principally collagen). Cancellous bone is characterized by interconnecting porosity necessary for tissue ingrowth and nourishment of bone cells. The purpose of the present study was to fabricate macroporous carbonate apatite (CAP) blocks with interconnecting porosity as potential bone substitute biomaterials by hydrothermal conversion of α-TCP foam in carbonate solution. The fabrication of the macroporous CAP was accomplished in two steps: (1) preparation of α-TCP foams using polyurethane foams as templates, and (2) hydrothermal conversion at 200°C of α-TCP foam in the presence of ammonium carbonate solutions of different concentrations. The maximum carbonate content of the resultant CAP foam was approximately 7.4 wt %. The mean porosity of the CAP foam was as high as 93 vol %. The macroporous CAP blocks or granules prepared in this manner has properties similar to that of bone in mineral composition and in having interconnecting macroporosity necessary for osteoconductivity and tissue ingrowth. On the basis of composition and interconnecting macroporosity, the CAP foam materials could be ideal biomaterials for bone repair and as scaffolds for tissue engineering.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ceramics and Composites
- Biomedical Engineering
- Metals and Alloys