Nowadays, full face synthesis and partial face manipulation by virtue of the generative adversarial networks (GANs) have raised wide public concern. In the digital media forensics area, detecting and ultimately locating the image forgery have become imperative. Although many methods focus on fake detection, only a few put emphasis on the localization of the fake regions. Through analyzing the imperfection in the upsampling procedures of the GAN-based methods and recasting the fake localization problem as a modified semantic segmentation one, our proposed FakeLocator can obtain high localization accuracy, at full resolution, on manipulated facial images. To the best of our knowledge, this is the very first attempt to solve the GAN-based fake localization problem with a semantic segmentation map. As an improvement, the real-numbered segmentation map proposed by us preserves more information of fake regions. For this new type segmentation map, we also find suitable loss functions for it. Experimental results on the CelebA and FFHQ databases with seven different SOTA GAN-based face generation methods show the effectiveness of our method. Compared with the baseline, our method performs several times better on various metrics. Moreover, the proposed method is robust against various real-world facial image degradations such as JPEG compression, low-resolution, noise, and blur.
|Publication status||Published - Jan 27 2020|
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