Sarcoma is a rare cancer, and little is known about the etiology, lifestyle epidemiology, and actual circumstances of treatment in hospitals in Japan. Understanding these issues is essential for the effective prevention and treatment of sarcoma. We therefore investigated the incidence of a personal and family cancer history in a total of 1320 sarcoma patients at the National Cancer Center Hospital. In addition, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, drinking, smoking, age and sex were compared in a descriptive study of 1159 of these sarcoma patients who were ≥ 20 years of age, and 7738 controls derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in Japan. A total of 8% of sarcoma patients had a personal history of another cancer, and 30% of soft tissue sarcoma patients had a family cancer history in a first-degree relative (malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, 52%; leiomyosarcoma, 46%). A smoking habit was associated with the development of sarcoma (odds ratio [OR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.78–2.37; p < 0.01). According to the histology, the ORs for undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) of bone, UPS of soft tissue, and liposarcoma were 5.71, 3.04, and 2.92, respectively. A family cancer history may be associated with certain soft tissue sarcomas, and a smoking habit was significantly associated with the development of sarcomas; however, further studies are necessary.
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