Axial-loading fatigue tests were carried out under low stress ratios, R = -∞ ∼ -5.33, by use of a cylindrical specimen of SAE52100 bearing steel having drill holes of 50 ∼ 200 μm in diameter. The maximum stresses, σmax = 0 ∼ 300 MPa were combined with the minimum stresses, σmin of -1600 or -1800 MPa. Even at σmax = 0, fatigue cracks were initiated at hole edges by cyclic compressive stress of σmin = -1800 MPa, and the cracks finally became non-propagating. When σmax was positive, fatigue cracks were initiated even at σmin = -1600 MPa and they also became non-propagating. The length of non-propagating cracks increased with an increase in σmax. Those phenomena were considered to be related to the tensile residual stress that was induced by the plastic deformation in the vicinity of hole edges. The relationship between the length of non-propagating crack and the residual stress field was investigated in terms of elastic-plastic finite element analysis.