Pressure cycle tests were performed on two types of Cr-Mo steel pressure vessels with inner diameters of 306 mm and 210 mm and notches machined on their inside under hydrogen-gas pressures, varied between 0.6 and 45 MPa at room temperature. One of the Cr-Mo steels had a fine microstructure with tensile strength of 828 MPa, while the other had a coarse microstructure with tensile strength of 947 MPa. Fatigue-crack growth (FCG) and fracture-toughness tests of the Cr-Mo steels were also carried out in gaseous hydrogen. The Cr-Mo steels showed accelerated FCG rates in gaseous hydrogen compared to ambient air with an upper bound corresponding to an approximately 30-times higher FCG rate. Furthermore, in gaseous hydrogen, the fracture toughness of the Cr-Mo steel with coarse microstructure was significantly smaller than that of the steel with fine microstructure. Four pressure vessels were tested; then, all of the pressure vessels failed by leak-before-break (LBB). Based on the fracture-mechanics approach, the LBB failure of one pressure vessel could not be estimated by using the fracture toughness in gaseous hydrogen. The fatigue lives could be estimated by using the upper bound of the accelerated FCG rates in gaseous hydrogen.