About 200 M tons of coal were imported into Japan in 2007 and Indonesia was its second largest exporter, accounting for about 30 M tons (12% of the total imported coal). Indonesia produced about 200 M tons of coal, about 75% of which was exported in 2007. As the Indonesian government has decided on an energy policy wherein 33% of the country's primary energy demand will be met by coal by the year 2025, the domestic demand for coal has increased dramatically in recent years. Over 99% of the coal produced in Indonesia comes from surface mines. However, the conditions of surface mines are worsening each year: the stripping ratio is increasing, approaching the economic ratio, and the infrastructure for coal from inland mining areas is insufficient for such intense mining operations. To meet the demand for coal in Indonesia and the rest of the world, underground mines have to be developed. However, mining engineers and/or miners in Indonesia do not have a lot of experiences, expertise and know-how concerning the plans and operations of an underground coal mine. In addition, the industry faces a lot of problems which include poor conditions such as a steep coal seam, groundwater problem, stability of highwall, etc. Under these situations, a mine targeted in this research attempts to develop a new underground mine from an open-cut highwall because the stripping ratio in the surface mining area has almost reached the limitation of economic value. This paper discusses the possible development of a new underground coal mine from an open-cut highwall by means of field observation and numerical analysis.