First Ionization Potentials of Fm, Md, No, and Lr: Verification of Filling-Up of 5f Electrons and Confirmation of the Actinide Series

Tetsuya K. Sato, Masato Asai, Anastasia Borschevsky, Randolf Beerwerth, Yusuke Kaneya, Hiroyuki Makii, Akina Mitsukai, Yuichiro Nagame, Akihiko Osa, Atsushi Toyoshima, Kazuaki Tsukada, Minoru Sakama, Shinsaku Takeda, Kazuhiro Ooe, Daisuke Sato, Yudai Shigekawa, Shin Ichi Ichikawa, Christoph E. Düllmann, Jessica Grund, Dennis RenischJens V. Kratz, Matthias Schädel, Ephraim Eliav, Uzi Kaldor, Stephan Fritzsche, Thierry Stora

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We report the first ionization potentials (IP1) of the heavy actinides, fermium (Fm, atomic number Z = 100), mendelevium (Md, Z = 101), nobelium (No, Z = 102), and lawrencium (Lr, Z = 103), determined using a method based on a surface ionization process coupled to an online mass separation technique in an atom-at-a-time regime. The measured IP1 values agree well with those predicted by state-of-the-art relativistic calculations performed alongside the present measurements. Similar to the well-established behavior for the lanthanides, the IP1 values of the heavy actinides up to No increase with filling up the 5f orbital, while that of Lr is the lowest among the actinides. These results clearly demonstrate that the 5f orbital is fully filled at No with the [Rn]5f147s2 configuration and that Lr has a weakly bound electron outside the No core. In analogy to the lanthanide series, the present results unequivocally verify that the actinide series ends with Lr.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14609-14613
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Volume140
Issue number44
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 7 2018

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Actinoid Series Elements
Ionization potential
Actinides
Electrons
Lanthanoid Series Elements
Mendelevium
Nobelium
Lawrencium
Fermium
polaprezinc
Rare earth elements
Ionization
Atoms

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Catalysis
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry

Cite this

First Ionization Potentials of Fm, Md, No, and Lr : Verification of Filling-Up of 5f Electrons and Confirmation of the Actinide Series. / Sato, Tetsuya K.; Asai, Masato; Borschevsky, Anastasia; Beerwerth, Randolf; Kaneya, Yusuke; Makii, Hiroyuki; Mitsukai, Akina; Nagame, Yuichiro; Osa, Akihiko; Toyoshima, Atsushi; Tsukada, Kazuaki; Sakama, Minoru; Takeda, Shinsaku; Ooe, Kazuhiro; Sato, Daisuke; Shigekawa, Yudai; Ichikawa, Shin Ichi; Düllmann, Christoph E.; Grund, Jessica; Renisch, Dennis; Kratz, Jens V.; Schädel, Matthias; Eliav, Ephraim; Kaldor, Uzi; Fritzsche, Stephan; Stora, Thierry.

In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 140, No. 44, 07.11.2018, p. 14609-14613.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Sato, TK, Asai, M, Borschevsky, A, Beerwerth, R, Kaneya, Y, Makii, H, Mitsukai, A, Nagame, Y, Osa, A, Toyoshima, A, Tsukada, K, Sakama, M, Takeda, S, Ooe, K, Sato, D, Shigekawa, Y, Ichikawa, SI, Düllmann, CE, Grund, J, Renisch, D, Kratz, JV, Schädel, M, Eliav, E, Kaldor, U, Fritzsche, S & Stora, T 2018, 'First Ionization Potentials of Fm, Md, No, and Lr: Verification of Filling-Up of 5f Electrons and Confirmation of the Actinide Series', Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 140, no. 44, pp. 14609-14613. https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.8b09068
Sato, Tetsuya K. ; Asai, Masato ; Borschevsky, Anastasia ; Beerwerth, Randolf ; Kaneya, Yusuke ; Makii, Hiroyuki ; Mitsukai, Akina ; Nagame, Yuichiro ; Osa, Akihiko ; Toyoshima, Atsushi ; Tsukada, Kazuaki ; Sakama, Minoru ; Takeda, Shinsaku ; Ooe, Kazuhiro ; Sato, Daisuke ; Shigekawa, Yudai ; Ichikawa, Shin Ichi ; Düllmann, Christoph E. ; Grund, Jessica ; Renisch, Dennis ; Kratz, Jens V. ; Schädel, Matthias ; Eliav, Ephraim ; Kaldor, Uzi ; Fritzsche, Stephan ; Stora, Thierry. / First Ionization Potentials of Fm, Md, No, and Lr : Verification of Filling-Up of 5f Electrons and Confirmation of the Actinide Series. In: Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2018 ; Vol. 140, No. 44. pp. 14609-14613.
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abstract = "We report the first ionization potentials (IP1) of the heavy actinides, fermium (Fm, atomic number Z = 100), mendelevium (Md, Z = 101), nobelium (No, Z = 102), and lawrencium (Lr, Z = 103), determined using a method based on a surface ionization process coupled to an online mass separation technique in an atom-at-a-time regime. The measured IP1 values agree well with those predicted by state-of-the-art relativistic calculations performed alongside the present measurements. Similar to the well-established behavior for the lanthanides, the IP1 values of the heavy actinides up to No increase with filling up the 5f orbital, while that of Lr is the lowest among the actinides. These results clearly demonstrate that the 5f orbital is fully filled at No with the [Rn]5f147s2 configuration and that Lr has a weakly bound electron outside the No core. In analogy to the lanthanide series, the present results unequivocally verify that the actinide series ends with Lr.",
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T2 - Verification of Filling-Up of 5f Electrons and Confirmation of the Actinide Series

AU - Sato, Tetsuya K.

AU - Asai, Masato

AU - Borschevsky, Anastasia

AU - Beerwerth, Randolf

AU - Kaneya, Yusuke

AU - Makii, Hiroyuki

AU - Mitsukai, Akina

AU - Nagame, Yuichiro

AU - Osa, Akihiko

AU - Toyoshima, Atsushi

AU - Tsukada, Kazuaki

AU - Sakama, Minoru

AU - Takeda, Shinsaku

AU - Ooe, Kazuhiro

AU - Sato, Daisuke

AU - Shigekawa, Yudai

AU - Ichikawa, Shin Ichi

AU - Düllmann, Christoph E.

AU - Grund, Jessica

AU - Renisch, Dennis

AU - Kratz, Jens V.

AU - Schädel, Matthias

AU - Eliav, Ephraim

AU - Kaldor, Uzi

AU - Fritzsche, Stephan

AU - Stora, Thierry

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N2 - We report the first ionization potentials (IP1) of the heavy actinides, fermium (Fm, atomic number Z = 100), mendelevium (Md, Z = 101), nobelium (No, Z = 102), and lawrencium (Lr, Z = 103), determined using a method based on a surface ionization process coupled to an online mass separation technique in an atom-at-a-time regime. The measured IP1 values agree well with those predicted by state-of-the-art relativistic calculations performed alongside the present measurements. Similar to the well-established behavior for the lanthanides, the IP1 values of the heavy actinides up to No increase with filling up the 5f orbital, while that of Lr is the lowest among the actinides. These results clearly demonstrate that the 5f orbital is fully filled at No with the [Rn]5f147s2 configuration and that Lr has a weakly bound electron outside the No core. In analogy to the lanthanide series, the present results unequivocally verify that the actinide series ends with Lr.

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