Compared with mycorrhizal relationships, the relationships between mycoheterotrophic plants and insects have rarely been studied. Here we report a previously unknown tripartite interaction among an endangered mycoheterotrophic orchid, an orchid-feeding fly, and a parasitoid wasp. The flowers and stems of Eulophia zollingeri were heavily attacked by Japanagromyza tokunagai (Sasakawa) (Diptera: Agromyzidae), and the parasitoid wasp Gronotoma guamensis (Yoshimoto) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) was reared from these J. tokunagai individuals. Considering the high infestation rate of J. tokunagai, G. guamensis could be important in suppressing the J. tokunagai population, and positively affect the reproductive success of E. zollingeri.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Insect Science