In the present study, a detailed investigation of flow boiling in a transparent heated microtube was performed. The transparent heated tube was made by electroless gold plating method. The enclosed gas-liquid interface could be clearly recognized through the tube wall, and the inner wall temperature measurement and direct heating of the film were simultaneously conducted by using the tube. The experimental conditions were: tube diameter 1 mm, mass velocity 100 kg/m2s, inlet liquid subcooling 20 K and heat flux up to 384 kW/m2 in the open system. Flow fluctuation was minimized by employing a twin plunger pump. Among our experimental results, we observed a high-frequency fluctuation of the inner wall temperature and a sharp peak for the heat transfer coefficient with high heat flux conditions, which have not been reported in previous experiments. This abrupt increase in the heat transfer coefficient coincided with a slight rapid axial growth of an elongated bubble found in the observation of the flow behavior. Hence, in low heat flux conditions, the fluctuations of temperature and heat transfer coefficient are strongly suppressed except for the instances when there is no bubble in the tube.