Diffuse chronic sclerosingosteomyelitis (DCSO) is a refractory disease, becausethe etiology and pathogenesis remain poorly understood and to determine the border betweenunhealthy boneandhealthybone is difficult. However, progressive inflammation, clinical symptoms and a high recurrence rate of DCSO were the reasons for surgical treatment. We report a case of a 66-year old woman with DCSO of the right side of mandible who was treated with hemimandibulectomy and simultaneous reconstruction by vascularized free fibula flap. After preoperative administration of minocycline for 1 month, the bone fluorescence was successfully monitored by using a Visually Enhanced Lesion Scope (VELscope®). Intraoperatively, we could determine the resection boundaries. We investigated the clinical and histopathological findings. The fluorescence findings were well correlated with histopathological findings. Using a VELscope®was handy and useful to determine the border between DCSO lesion andhealthybone. The free fibula flap under the minocycline-derived bone fluorescence by using a VELscope®offered a good quality of mandibular bone and the successful management of an advanced and refractory DCSO.
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