Objective. Pulmonary artery (PA) distortion significantly compromises the outcome of the staged approach to the Fontan operation in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). This retrospective study was designed to investigate the influence of the initial operation on postoperative PA anatomy. Methods. Forty-nine patients with HLHS and its variant were enrolled in this study. As an initial palliation, the Norwood operation with a modified Blalock-Taussig (BT) shunt was performed in 12, the Norwood operation with a right ventricle to pulmonary artery (RV-PA) shunt in 31, and bilateral PA banding in 6. The incidence and risk factors of postoperative central pulmonary artery stenosis (PS) were investigated, and the PA configuration was followed up until post-Fontan status. Results. Twenty-two patients (51.2%) had developed central PS after the Norwood operation (33.3% with a BT shunt vs. 58.1% with a RV-PA shunt). The RV-PA shunt with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) patch at the distal pulmonary stump significantly decreased the central PS (P = 0.035). The PA index after the Norwood operation was not statistically different between the BT and RV-PA shunt groups, although in the RV-PA group it was significantly higher in patients with a PTFE patch on the distal PA stump. PA plasty was performed in 16 patients in the second-stage palliation and in 15 with the Fontan completion. Freedom from PA plasty was significantly lower in the RV-PA shunt group than in the BT shunt group (63.5% vs. 31.1% at 5 years, P = 0.034). Six patients initially palliated with bilateral PA banding had no stenosis at the banding site in the Norwood + Glenn operation, and one patient required stent placement for left PS in the Fontan completion. Post-Fontan catheterization (n = 31) showed central venous pressure of 11.5 ± 2.6 mmHg, cardiac index of 3.6 ± 0.8 l/kg/min, and PA index of 194.0 ± 58.4 mm2/m2; there was no difference between the groups. Conclusion. The incidence of central PS after the Norwood operation was significant, and the shunt type and procedure for the distal PA stump influenced the postoperative configuration of the central PA. With an aggressive surgical approach to central PS, PA anatomy was satisfactory with good hemodynamic variables after Fontan completion. Bilateral PA banding did not cause later vascular deformity.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine