Otitis media is one of the common organ injuries that appear during the course of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). We experienced four patients with myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA-positive AAV with otitis media. All were elderly Japanese women. MPO-ANCA in our patients was reminiscent of microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), although chest computed tomography (CT) scans revealed characteristics of both granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), showing bronchial lesions and nodule formation, and MPA, showing interstitial changes. Whether our cases should be classified as GPA or MPA is a matter of discussion. We detail their profiles, and review previous literature on MPO-ANCA-positive AAV with otitis media.
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