Aim: To investigate the frequency and risk factors of perioperative, symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) after gastroenterological surgery. Methods: We assessed the frequency of and risk factors for VTE after eight gastroenterological procedures (total 516 217 cases including, gastrectomy, total gastrectomy, hepatectomy, esophagectomy, right hemicolectomy, low anterior resection, pancreaticoduodenectomy, and acute pan-peritonitis surgery) based on data from the National Clinical Database. Data collected between 2011 and 2013 (382 124 cases) were used as a test set, and data from 2014 (134 093 cases) were used as a validation set. Results: The frequency of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was 0.3% (382 124 cases), and the incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) was 0.2% (382 124 cases) ranging from 0.1% to 0.7% for DVT and from 0.1% and 0.3% for PE among eight surgeries, respectively. Analyses using pre-and intra-operative factors identified the top three risk factors for VTE as esophagectomy, pancreaticoduodenectomy, and hepatectomy. Using pre-, intra-, and postoperative factors, the second through fourth risk factors were sepsis, prolonged ventilation >48 hours and readmission within 30 days. The highest risks factor for PE using pre-, intra-, and postoperative factors were any cardiac events. Unplanned intubation was the fourth risk factor. Conclusion: The risk for DVT and PE differed for each surgical procedure. VTE and PE risk factors changed after considering postoperative factors. It may be necessary to reconsider the prophylaxis depending on whether the complication occurs after surgery, particularly breathing and cardiac complications.
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