In this study, Zr, Ti and TiC-based cermet specimens were prepared, and their friction and wear properties in various gas atmospheres were examined. The Zr specimens exhibited the lowest friction coefficients and the smallest volume change in the H2 gas atmosphere. This reason would have been due to the formation of the ε-type Zr hydride, which has a layered crystal structure. The Ti specimens exhibited similar friction and wear properties, although the TiC-based cermet specimens containing small amount of Mo, Ni and W exhibited the lowest friction coefficients in air, not in the H2 gas atmosphere. The low friction coefficients of the cermet specimens in air is likely to have been due to the formation of the low friction Mo oxides and W oxides.