Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), a catechin present in green tea, selectively elicits apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells by activating the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) axis. However, the effects of EGCG alone are limited. Herein, we revealed that fustin, a flavanonol, enhances the EGCG-elicited activation of the cGMP/eNOS axis in multiple myeloma cells. Isobologram analysis demonstrated that EGCG/fustin synergistically elicited cell death in multiple myeloma cells. Importantly, this chemical combination significantly promoted cell death without affecting the normal cells. To assess the effects of EGCG and fustin in vivo, female BALB/c mice were inoculated with multiple myeloma MPC11 cells and then treated with each compound. The combination of EGCG/fustin suppressed tumor growth in vivo without affecting alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase levels, the dose-limiting toxicity of EGCG. Consistent with in vitro findings, this combination increased eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 in the tumor. Collectively, fustin amplified EGCG-induced activation of the eNOS/cGMP axis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)