Skincare products play a crucial role in preventing the dry skin induced by various causes. Certain ingredients can help to improve the efficacy of skincare products. Galactomyces ferment filtrate (GFF) is such a functional ingredient. Its use originated from the empirical observation that the hands of sake brewers who deal with yeast fermentation retain a beautiful and youthful appearance. Consequently, skincare products based on GFF are widely used throughout the world. Recent studies have demonstrated that GFF activates an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and upregulates the expression of filaggrin, a pivotal endogenous source of natural moisturizing factors, in epidermal keratinocytes. It also activates nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (NRF2), the antioxidative master transcription factor, and exhibits potent antioxidative activity against oxidative stress induced by ultraviolet irradiation and proinflammatory cytokines, which also accelerate inflammaging. GFF-mediated NRF2 activation downregulates the expression of CDKN2A, which is known to be overexpressed in senescent keratinocytes. Moreover, GFF enhances epidermal terminal differentiation by upregulating the expression of caspase-14, claudin-1, and claudin-4. It also promotes the synthesis of the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-37 and downregulates the expression of proallergic cytokine IL-33 in keratinocytes. In addition, GFF downregulates the expression of the CXCL14 and IL6R genes, which are involved in inflammaging. These beneficial properties might underpin the potent barrier-protecting and anti-inflammaging effects of GFF-containing skin formulae.
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