Glycoconjugates are an important class of biomolecules that regulate numerous biological events in cells. However, these complex, medium-size molecules are metabolically unstable, which hampers detailed investigations of their functions as well as their potential application as pharmaceuticals. Here we report sialidase-resistant analogues of ganglioside GM3 containing a monofluoromethylene linkage instead of the native O-sialoside linkage. Stereoselective synthesis of CHF-linked disaccharides and kinetically controlled Au(I)-catalyzed glycosylation efficiently furnished both stereoisomers of CHF-linked as well as CF2- and CH2-linked GM3 analogues. Like native GM3, the C-linked GM3 analogues inhibited the autophosphorylation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor induced by EGF in vitro. Assay of the proliferation-enhancing activity toward Had-1 cells together with NMR-based conformational analysis showed that the (S)-CHF-linked GM3 analogue with exo-gauche conformation is the most potent of the synthesized compounds. Our findings suggest that exo-anomeric conformation is important for the biological functions of GM3.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry