The National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 02 (NGHP-02) was designed to examine gas hydrate occurrences off the eastern margin of the Indian Peninsula. Twelve holes were logged with logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools and nine holes at five sites were cored in Area-B of NGHP-02. Five logging units were defined based on the characteristics in logging data responses. Distinctive Logging Units R1 and R2 characterized by high gamma ray log values and composed of quartz and biotite-rich medium sized sand grain units that act as gas hydrate resevoirs and correlated to strong seismic reflectors. Hydrate-bearing intervals can be identified by resistivity and sonic velocity logs and classified into pore-filling type, fracture-filling type, and a mixture of pore- and fracture-filling types based on borehole image characteristics. Pore-filling type gas hydrate is typically developed in the case where the depths of R1 and/or R2 is close to the seismic inferred bottom simulating reflector (BSR). Fracture-filling type hydrates associated the R1 section occur above the BSR associated with the anticline in Area-B. The occurrence of pore-filling and fracture-filling gas hydrate represent different processes of hydrate formation related to the regional geological structure. The stratigraphic layered pore-filling gas hydrate occurrences are generated along often dipping sand layers, which are also conduits for methane-bearing fluid migrating from below the BSR in many settings. Fracture-filling type gas hydrate is an alternative mechanism for the occurrence of gas hydrate in mudstone-rich sediments above the BSR and found associated with the anticline in Area-B. This structural constraint of the hydrate-bearing fractures in the Area-B anticline suggest that the fracture dominated reservoirs possibly formed by anticlinal flexure, and the upward flow of methane-bearing fluids along porous sedimentary layers and the subsequent formation of pore-filling gas hydrate occurrences account for the range of gas hydrate accumulations discovered during NGHP-02.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Economic Geology