There are many nanorods having the shape anisotropy in the metal fine particles, particularly the rod-like gold fine nanoparticles are called gold nanorods (GNRs). Recently, optical properties of GNRs derived from the geometrical anisotropy in shape have been reported, the control of its optical properties by orientation of GNRs attracts a growing interest. On the other hand, liquid crystals exhibiting the anisotropy like crystals and the fluidity like liquids have the long range orientational order. The purpose of this study is to provide GNRs with liquid crystalline order based on an exclusion volume effect of the geometrical anisotropy in shape. We investigated the generation of liquid crystallinity of GNRs of which the surface electrostatic charge was controlled to give repulsion among them.