Objective: Genetic polymorphisms were identified in the 5′-flanking region of the human CYP2C9 gene, and their effects on the phenotype were evaluated on the basis of the luciferase reporter gene assay and the in vivo pharmacokinetics of phenytoin. Methods: Genetic polymorphisms were screened by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis, following sequencing with DNA samples obtained from 50 healthy volunteers and 133 adult epileptic patients. HepG2 hepatoma cells were cotransfected with various sequence patterns of 5′-flanking region-luciferase reporter gene constructs. Pharmacokinetic parameters of phenytoin in relation to the corresponding sequence patterns were estimated by the Bayesian method, and the results were compared with in vitro activities. Results: Genetic analysis revealed the existence of 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Allele frequencies of T→C transition at position -1912 (T-1912C), C-1886G, C-1566T, G-1538A, C-1189T, G-982A, and A-162G were 0.019, 0.019, 0.077, 0.019, 0.579, 0.019, and 0.003, respectively. Some mutations occurred simultaneously, and a total of 6 sequence patterns (patterns 1-6) were observed. The luciferase reporter gene assay indicated that the presence of mutation(s) resulted in a reduction in luciferase activity of 41.4% (pattern 2) to 86.8% (pattern 5) compared with the activity of the wild-type construct. The calculated intrinsic clearance of phenytoin was also lower (up to a 40% reduction for pattern 2) when a mutation(s) was present. Conclusion: In addition to the two major mutations in the coding region (CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3), mutations in the 5′-flanking region of the human CYP2C9 gene appear to contribute to the large interindividual variability in drug metabolism activity.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmacology (medical)