We examined the genetic structures of 13 Japanese populations of an ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus germanus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae), to understand the effects of geographical barriers on the colonization dynamics of this species. The genetic structure was studied using portions of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene. A phylogenetic analysis revealed three distinct lineages (clades A, B and C) within X. germanus. Clade A contained 21 haplotypes from all 13 populations; whereas clade B contained eight haplotypes from Hokkaido (Sapporo and Furano), Iwate and Nagano populations; and clade C contained only a single a haplotype from the Hokkaido (Furano) population. In the analysis of molecular variance (amova), the greatest amount of genetic variation was detected between populations in Hokkaido and those in Honshu and other southern islands. Between these two groups of populations, all the values of the coefficient of gene differentiation were significantly larger than zero, except for the Hokkaido (Sapporo) versus Nagano comparison. Our results confirm that for X. germanus, gene flow has been interrupted between Hokkaido and Honshu since the last glacial maximum.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Insect Science