Background. Recurrent infections of Helicobacter cinaedi are often reported, and long-term antimicrobial treatment is empirically recommended to prevent such infections. However, there have been no studies examining whether recurrent infections are relapses of former infections or reinfections with different clones. Methods. A 69-year-old woman presented with recurrent H cinaedi bacteremia-associated cellulitis after a 51-day interval. We isolated 10 colonies from the blood cultures obtained during each of the 2 episodes and subjected them to whole-genome sequencing (WGS). High-confidence single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified by an assembly based method. Heterogeneous SNP sites were identified by read mapping. The susceptibility of a representative isolate to 14 antimicrobials was also examined. Results. Whole-genome sequence analysis revealed only 6 SNP sites among the 20 isolates at the whole-genome level. Based on the 6 SNPs, 5 within-host variants (referred to as genotypes) were identified. All 5 genotypes were detected in the first infection; however, only 2 genotypes were detected in the second infection. Although the H cinaedi clone showed a higher minimum inhibitory concentration to fluoroquinolones and macrolides and responsible mutations were identified, none of the 6 SNPs appeared related to additional resistance. Conclusions. The second infection analyzed here was a relapse of the first infection. A certain level of within-host genomic heterogeneity of the H cinaedi clone was already present in the first infection. Our results suggest the importance of longer treatment courses to eradicate H cinaedi for preventing the relapse of its infection.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Neurology