Background: Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a rare and unpredictable lesion. Its standard treatment has ranged from surgical curettage to wide resection and varying oncological and functional results have been reported. Methods: A retrospective review of 47 patients (17 males and 30 females) with GCT of bone was performed to evaluate the oncological and functional results. The patients were followed up for at least 5 years. The average age of the patients was 32 years (range 15-66 years). The tumor sites were distal femur in 15 cases, proximal tibia in 10, distal radius in five, spinal column in four, proximal femur in three, proximal humerus in three, proximal fibula in two, pelvis in two and others in three. Enneking's surgical stages were Stage 1 in three, Stage 2 in 34 and Stage 3 in 10 cases. In these 47 patients, 80 surgical procedures were performed. Results: The rate of local recurrence was 75% in the 28 patients undergoing intralesional excision, 50% in those receiving excision and curettage and 0% in those receiving wide resection. Although there was no statistical significance, surgical stages tended to be correlated with the local recurrence rate (Stage 1, 0%; Stage 2, 53%; Stage 3, 70%). Functional evaluation was performed according to the most recent system of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society. Functional results of the patients with extremity tumors were 28.2 (average) in those undergoing intralesional excision, 30 (average) in those receiving excision and curettage and 27.1 (average) in those receiving wide resection. Functional results were significantly correlated with the initial surgical stages (Stage 1, 30; Stage 2, 27.5; Stage 3, 24.4; Kruskal-Wallis test, P = 0.016). Conclusions: To preserve good function of the extremities and avoid local recurrence, we consider that intralesional excision with adjunctive therapy such as phenol cauterization should be employed for the treatment of benign GCT of bone.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cancer Research