Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose into pyruvate, whereas fermentation can then produce lactate from pyruvate. Here, we developed single fluorescent protein (FP)-based lactate and pyruvate indicators with low EC50 for trace detection of metabolic molecules and live cell imaging and named them “Green Lindoblum” and “Green Pegassos,” respectively. Green Lindoblum (EC50 of 30 µM for lactate) and Green Pegassos (EC50 of 70 µM for pyruvate) produced a 5.2- and 3.3-fold change in fluorescence intensity in response to lactate and pyruvate, respectively. Green Lindoblum measured lactate levels in mouse plasma, and Green Pegassos in combination with D-serine dehydratase successfully estimated D-serine levels released from mouse primary cultured neurons and astrocytes by measuring pyruvate level. Furthermore, live cell imaging analysis revealed their utility for dual-colour imaging, and the interplay between lactate, pyruvate, and Ca2+ in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Therefore, Green Lindoblum and Green Pegassos will be useful tools that detect specific molecules in clinical use and monitor the interplay of metabolites and other related molecules in diverse cell types.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes