Summary: To evaluate haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in children and adolescents, we reviewed the records of 47 patients who were ≤18 years, had relapsed or refractory anaplastic large cell lymphoma, and received HSCT between 1990 and 2010. At HSCT, complete remission (CR) was less common in allogeneic HSCT recipients (n = 24) than in autologous HSCT recipients (n = 23) (P = 0·01). The autologous and allogeneic HSCT groups differed in terms of 5-year event-free survival (EFS) (38% vs. 50%, P = 0·63), cumulative incidence of progress or relapse (49% vs. 28%, P = 0·25), and treatment-related mortality (12% vs. 25%, P = 0·40). However, these differences were not significant. Patients with non-CR at autologous HSCT had a significantly lower EFS rate (14% vs. 48%, P = 0·03). Conversely, although those with non-CR at allogeneic HSCT had a lower EFS rate, this was not significant (44% vs. 63%, P = 0·26). Reduced-intensity conditioning regimens were used for three of the 16 allogeneic HSCTs received by patients with non-CR. These three patients achieved CR, surviving 32-65 months after HSCT. These results demonstrated that allogeneic HSCT might be a treatment option for patients who do not achieve CR through conventional chemotherapy.
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