### Abstract

Based on Einstein's mass-energy relation, the equivalent mass of thermal energy or heat is identified and referred to as thermomass. Hence, heat conduction in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be regarded as the motion of the weighty phonon gas governed by its mass and momentum conservation equations. The momentum conservation equation of phonon gas is a damped wave equation, which is essentially the general heat conduction law since it reduces to Fourier's heat conduction law as the heat flux is not very high and the consequent inertial force of phonon gas is negligible. The ratio of the phonon gas velocity to the thermal sound speed (the propagation speed of thermal wave) can be defined as the thermal Mach number. For a CNT electrically heated by high-bias current flows, the phonon gas velocity increases along the heat flow direction, just like the gas flow in a converging nozzle. The heat flow in the CNT is governed by the electrode temperature until the thermal Mach numbers of phonon gas at the tube ends reach unity, and the further reduction of the electrode temperature has no effect on the heat flow in the CNT. Under this condition, the heat flow is said to be choked and temperature jumps will be observed at the tube ends. In this case the predicted temperature profile of the CNT based on Fourier's law is much lower than that based on the general heat conduction law. The thermal conductivity which is determined by the measured heat flux over the temperature gradient of the CNT will be underestimated, and this thermal conductivity is actually the apparent thermal conductivity. In addition, the heat flow choking should be avoided in engineering situations to prevent the thermal failure of materials.

Original language | English |
---|---|

Pages (from-to) | 1796-1800 |

Number of pages | 5 |

Journal | International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer |

Volume | 53 |

Issue number | 9-10 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - Apr 1 2010 |

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### All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

- Condensed Matter Physics
- Mechanical Engineering
- Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes

### Cite this

*International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer*,

*53*(9-10), 1796-1800. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2010.01.010

**Heat flow choking in carbon nanotubes.** / Wang, Hai Dong; Cao, Bing Yang; Guo, Zeng Yuan.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

*International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer*, vol. 53, no. 9-10, pp. 1796-1800. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2010.01.010

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Heat flow choking in carbon nanotubes

AU - Wang, Hai Dong

AU - Cao, Bing Yang

AU - Guo, Zeng Yuan

PY - 2010/4/1

Y1 - 2010/4/1

N2 - Based on Einstein's mass-energy relation, the equivalent mass of thermal energy or heat is identified and referred to as thermomass. Hence, heat conduction in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be regarded as the motion of the weighty phonon gas governed by its mass and momentum conservation equations. The momentum conservation equation of phonon gas is a damped wave equation, which is essentially the general heat conduction law since it reduces to Fourier's heat conduction law as the heat flux is not very high and the consequent inertial force of phonon gas is negligible. The ratio of the phonon gas velocity to the thermal sound speed (the propagation speed of thermal wave) can be defined as the thermal Mach number. For a CNT electrically heated by high-bias current flows, the phonon gas velocity increases along the heat flow direction, just like the gas flow in a converging nozzle. The heat flow in the CNT is governed by the electrode temperature until the thermal Mach numbers of phonon gas at the tube ends reach unity, and the further reduction of the electrode temperature has no effect on the heat flow in the CNT. Under this condition, the heat flow is said to be choked and temperature jumps will be observed at the tube ends. In this case the predicted temperature profile of the CNT based on Fourier's law is much lower than that based on the general heat conduction law. The thermal conductivity which is determined by the measured heat flux over the temperature gradient of the CNT will be underestimated, and this thermal conductivity is actually the apparent thermal conductivity. In addition, the heat flow choking should be avoided in engineering situations to prevent the thermal failure of materials.

AB - Based on Einstein's mass-energy relation, the equivalent mass of thermal energy or heat is identified and referred to as thermomass. Hence, heat conduction in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be regarded as the motion of the weighty phonon gas governed by its mass and momentum conservation equations. The momentum conservation equation of phonon gas is a damped wave equation, which is essentially the general heat conduction law since it reduces to Fourier's heat conduction law as the heat flux is not very high and the consequent inertial force of phonon gas is negligible. The ratio of the phonon gas velocity to the thermal sound speed (the propagation speed of thermal wave) can be defined as the thermal Mach number. For a CNT electrically heated by high-bias current flows, the phonon gas velocity increases along the heat flow direction, just like the gas flow in a converging nozzle. The heat flow in the CNT is governed by the electrode temperature until the thermal Mach numbers of phonon gas at the tube ends reach unity, and the further reduction of the electrode temperature has no effect on the heat flow in the CNT. Under this condition, the heat flow is said to be choked and temperature jumps will be observed at the tube ends. In this case the predicted temperature profile of the CNT based on Fourier's law is much lower than that based on the general heat conduction law. The thermal conductivity which is determined by the measured heat flux over the temperature gradient of the CNT will be underestimated, and this thermal conductivity is actually the apparent thermal conductivity. In addition, the heat flow choking should be avoided in engineering situations to prevent the thermal failure of materials.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=76749128911&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=76749128911&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2010.01.010

DO - 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2010.01.010

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:76749128911

VL - 53

SP - 1796

EP - 1800

JO - International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer

JF - International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer

SN - 0017-9310

IS - 9-10

ER -