Background: The appropriateness of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in children and adolescents with leukemia in whom complete remission is not possible remains unclear. This retrospective analysis aimed to investigate the outcomes associated with HSCT, and the risks of HSCT in children and adolescents with nonremission acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Procedure: Data from the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation registry on 325 patients with nonremission ALL (aged <21 years, with blasts in the peripheral blood and/or bone marrow) who had undergone HSCT between January 2001 and December 2015 were evaluated. To assess survival, we developed a scoring system using significant adverse pre-HSCT variables. Results: Overall, 247 patients died. The median length of follow up among survivors was 1145 days, and the 3-year overall survival was 22% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18-27%). A low performance score, presence of >25% bone marrow blasts, T-cell phenotype, poor-risk or normal cytogenetics, and history of HSCT were predictors of a poor outcome. Patients scoring 0-1 (n = 109), 2 (n = 91), and 3-7 (n = 125) had a 3-year overall survival of 41% (95% CI: 31-51%), 21% (95% CI: 13-31%), and 7% (95% CI: 3-12%), respectively. Conclusion: These results support HSCT in certain nonremission patients. Even in patients without complete remission, outcomes differed according to pre-HSCT factors. A scoring system could help determine the appropriateness of HSCT in children and adolescents with nonremission ALL.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health