Heterogony was confirmed in the cynipid genus Cycloneuroterus Melika and Tang in rearing experiments with DNA barcoding. These experiments involved Cycloneuroterus gilvus Tang and Melika, which was previously only described from the sexual generation adult. The first rearing experiment was conducted using unidentified asexual generation females collected from Quercus gilva Blume, and gall formation by the sexual generation offspring was confirmed on folded or unfolded young leaves of Q. gilva. The second experiment was conducted using sexual generation males and females reared from the leaf galls collected from Q. gilva, and gall formation by the asexual generation offspring was observed on leaves of Q. gilva. Based on the morphological features of the sexual generation adults and galls, this species was identified as C. gilvus. The species identity of wasp specimens of sexual and asexual generations used in the rearing experiments was cross-checked using DNA barcoding with the partial sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) region (658 bp). The asexual generation adult and gall of C. gilvus are described based on these results. The importance of 'closing the life cycle,' in this case a demonstration of heterogony, in oak gall wasps (Cynipini) is discussed.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Insect Science