Women are at high risk of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Hypogonadism is universal after irradiation or busulfan. We hypothesized that reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) might protect ovarian function after HCT. We retrospectively reviewed data from patients with acute leukemia treated according to the Japan Association of Childhood Leukemia Study and nationwide multicenter study protocol. We selected 11 female patients with acute leukemia who received first HCT with RIC, had survived for three or more years after HCT, and were aged ≥ 12 years at the last follow-up visit. Median age at diagnosis, HCT, and last visit were 8, 10, and 17 years. Six patients received HLA-matched bone marrow (BM), two HLA-mismatched BM, and three cord blood. Melphalan was used as conditioning regimen in all patients. At the last visit, six of seven post-pubertal patients at transplantation recovered menstruation, and four of four patients who underwent transplantation at the pre-pubertal began menstruation. Height z scores showed no significant reduction between pre-transplant and post-transplant. No patients received growth hormone treatment. Only one recipient displayed subclinical hypothyroidism. Melphalan-based RIC may be an encouraging option for patients with acute leukemia to avoid ovarian and endocrine dysfunction after HCT.
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