High-Resolution Imaging by Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy Reveals Two Morphologically Distinct Types of Retinal Hard Exudates

Muneo Yamaguchi, Shintaro Nakao, Yoshihiro Kaizu, Yoshiyuki Kobayashi, Takahito Nakama, Mitsuru Arima, Shigeo Yoshida, Yuji Oshima, Atsunobu Takeda, Yasuhiro Ikeda, Shizuo Mukai, Tatsuro Ishibashi, Koh Hei Sonoda

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9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Histological studies from autopsy specimens have characterized hard exudates as a composition of lipid-laden macrophages or noncellular materials including lipid and proteinaceous substances (hyaline substances). However, the characteristics of hard exudates in living patients have not been examined due to insufficient resolution of existing equipment. In this study, we used adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO) to examine the characteristics of hard exudates in patients with retinal vascular diseases. High resolution imaging using AO-SLO enables morphological classification of retinal hard exudates into two types, which could not be distinguished either on fundus examination or by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). One, termed a round type, consisted of an accumulation of spherical particles (average diameter of particles: 26.9 ± 4.4 μm). The other, termed an irregular type, comprised an irregularly shaped hyper-reflective deposition. The retinal thickness in regions with round hard exudates was significantly greater than the thickness in regions with irregular hard exudates (P = 0.01 â †'0.02). This differentiation of retinal hard exudates in patients by AO-SLO may help in understanding the pathogenesis and clinical prognosis of retinal vascular diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Article number33574
JournalScientific reports
Volume6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 19 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General

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