Background: The association between the circulating fatty acid (FA) composition and type 2 diabetes (T2D) has been reported in Western populations, but evidence is scarce among Asian populations, including Japanese, who consume large amounts of fish. Objective: The objective of the present study was to prospectively examine the association between circulating concentrations of individual FAs and T2D incidence among Japanese adults. Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort of 4754 employees, aged 34-69 y, who attended a comprehensive health checkup in 2008-2009 and donated blood samples for the Hitachi Health Study. During 5 y of follow-up, diabetes was identified on the basis of plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and self-report. Two controls matched to each case by sex, age, and date of checkup were randomly chosen by using density sampling, resulting in 336 cases and 678 controls with FA measurements. GC was used to measure the FA composition in serum phospholipids. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the HRs and 95% CIs after adjusting for potential confounders. We examined the association of T2D risk with 25 different individual and combinations of FAs. Results: T2D risk was positively associated with serum dihomo-γ-linoleic acid concentration (highest compared with the lowest quartile-HR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.11; P-trend = 0.02) and inversely associated with Δ5-desaturase activity (highest compared with the lowest quartile-HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.99; P-trend = 0.02), independent of body mass index (BMI). There were also inverse associations between T2D risk with serum total n-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), linoleic acid, and cis-vaccenic acid, but these were attenuated and became nonsignificant after adjustment for BMI. Serum n-3 (ω-3) PUFAs and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were not associated with T2D risk. Conclusions: T2D risk was associated with circulating concentrations of the n-6 PUFA dihomo-γ-linoleic acid and Δ5-desaturase activity but not with n-3 PUFA or SFA concentrations in Japanese adults.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Nutrition and Dietetics