With their unusual electronic structures, organic radical molecules display luminescence properties potentially relevant to lighting applications; yet, their luminescence quantum yield and stability lag behind those of other organic emitters. Here, we designed donor–acceptor neutral radicals based on an electron-poor perchlorotriphenylmethyl or tris(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)methyl radical moiety combined with different electron-rich groups. Experimental and quantum-chemical studies demonstrate that the molecules do not follow the Aufbau principle: the singly occupied molecular orbital is found to lie below the highest (doubly) occupied molecular orbital. These donor–acceptor radicals have a strong emission yield (up to 54%) and high photostability, with estimated half-lives reaching up to several months under pulsed ultraviolet laser irradiation. Organic light-emitting diodes based on such a radical emitter show deep-red/near-infrared emission with a maximal external quantum efficiency of 5.3%. Our results provide a simple molecular-design strategy for stable, highly luminescent radicals with non-Aufbau electronic structures.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering