Highly graphitized carbon from non-graphitizable raw material and its formation mechanism based on domain theory

Doo Won Kim, Hyun Sig Kil, Jandee Kim, Isao Mochida, Koji Nakabayashi, Choong Kyun Rhee, Jin Miyawaki, Seong-Ho Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This work demonstrates conversion of non-graphitizable carbon (NGC) to graphitizable carbon (GC) by NaOH treatment of carbonized spherical phenol resin (SPR). The degree of graphitization of the studied SPRs was confirmed using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, and their morphologies were observed with scanning electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy. Graphitization of amorphous carbonized SPR at 2800 °C was performed; however, the degree of graphitization was low to indicate that carbonized SPR was non-graphitizable. NaOH treatment of carbonized SPR endowed fairly high degree of graphitization; graphitization of carbonized SPR following NaOH activation improved the degree of graphitization. Thus NaOH treatment was demonstrated to convert non-graphitizable SPR to graphitizable one. The role of NaOH was suggested in terms of hierarchical domain structure model. NaOH treatment could successfully destroy micro-domains of carbonized SPR via sodium intercalation/deintercalation and catalytic gasification with deintercalated sodium atoms with releasing hydrogen and gaseous carbon oxides and decreasing alkyl groups, and reconstruct the new larger clusters and micro-domains merged together to relieve the distortion stresses. Thus merged micro-domains would be critical in the conversion of NGC to GC. The presented findings open up a possibility to control the properties of carbon materials by manipulation of their domain structures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)301-308
Number of pages8
JournalCarbon
Volume121
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2017

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Graphitization
Phenol
Phenols
Raw materials
Carbon
Resins
Sodium
Scanning tunneling microscopy
Intercalation
Model structures
Gasification
Oxides
Raman spectroscopy
Hydrogen
Chemical activation
X ray diffraction
Atoms
Scanning electron microscopy

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)

Cite this

Highly graphitized carbon from non-graphitizable raw material and its formation mechanism based on domain theory. / Kim, Doo Won; Kil, Hyun Sig; Kim, Jandee; Mochida, Isao; Nakabayashi, Koji; Rhee, Choong Kyun; Miyawaki, Jin; Yoon, Seong-Ho.

In: Carbon, Vol. 121, 01.09.2017, p. 301-308.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kim, Doo Won ; Kil, Hyun Sig ; Kim, Jandee ; Mochida, Isao ; Nakabayashi, Koji ; Rhee, Choong Kyun ; Miyawaki, Jin ; Yoon, Seong-Ho. / Highly graphitized carbon from non-graphitizable raw material and its formation mechanism based on domain theory. In: Carbon. 2017 ; Vol. 121. pp. 301-308.
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