It is known that large amounts of histamine are stored in mast cells located in the superficial dermis of the skin and can be released upon appropriate stimulation. However, the effects of histamine on keratinocyte function have not been well characterized. We therefore examined the capacity of histamine to modulate the production of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 by keratinocytes. We found that histamine significantly augmented the production of IL-6 and IL-8 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The enhancing effects of histamine were completely inhibited by a potent H1 receptor (H1R) antagonist, emedastine difumarate. Pyrilamine (a much weaker H1R antagonist) and cimetidine (an H2R antagonist) only partially inhibited the enhancing effects of histamine. The histamine-induced up-regulation of IL-6 and IL-8 production, however, was completely abrogated by a combination of pyrilamine and cimetidine. The IL-6 production was significantly enhanced by interferon (IFN)-γ. Interestingly, IFN-γ and IL-4 both significantly augmented the histamine-induced IL-6 production. On the other hand, the production of IL-8 was inhibited by IFN-γ, and IFN-γ and IL-4 both completely abrogated the histamine-induced IL-8 production. These results suggest that the histamine-induced IL-6 production and IL-8 production are differentially regulated by IFN-γ and IL-4. Histamine may be an important modulator of cytokine production in epidermal milieu.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology