The purpose of this study was to examine early wound healing following grafting of dense hydroxyapatite granules (HA granules) and barrier placement in surgically-created bone defects surrounding implants. Eight healthy adult dogs with an average weight of 15 kg were used in this study. Thirty-two bone defects measuring 4 mm X 4 mm were removed with a surgical bur to form continuous bucco-lingual bone defects and 32 implants (16 titanium [Ti]) and 16 hydroxyapatite-coated [HA]) were then placed into the defects. Four implant groups were created: 1) grafting HA; 2) covering with an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membrane; 3) grafting HA and covering with ePTFE membrane; and 4) control (no treatment). Animals were sacrificed 28 days after surgery. Histological sections revealed large amounts of newlyformed bone in all bone defects surrounding the implants treated with ePTFE membranes alone. Fibrous encapsulation of HA granules was observed in the defects of the HA granules grafting group. In the group with grafting of HA granules and covering with ePTFE membranes, small amounts of bone tissue were observed among HA granules, but most HA granules were surrounded with fibrous tissue. Bone defects were completely filled with connective tissue in the control group. There were no differences in the histological findings between Ti and HA-coated implants in all cases. Histomorphometric data disclosed that the presence of HA granules in the bone defects significantly arrested bone formation. Our study suggests that the grafting of dense HA into bone defects surrounding implants will result in fibrous healing during the early healing stage.
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