How canalization can make loops: A new model of reticulated leaf vascular pattern formation

François G. Feugier, Yoh Iwasa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

43 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Formation of the vascular system in plant leaves can be explained by the canalization hypothesis which states that veins are formed in an initially homogeneous field by a self-organizing process between the plant hormone auxin and auxin carrier proteins. Previous models of canalization can generate vein patterns with branching but fail to generate vein patterns with closed loops. However, closed vein loops are commonly observed in plant leaves and are important in making them robust to herbivore attacks and physical damage. Here we propose a new model which generates a vein system with closed loops. We postulate that the "flux bifurcator" level is enhanced in cells with a high auxin flux and that it causes reallocation of auxin carriers toward neighbouring cells also having a high bifurcator level. This causes the auxin flux to bifurcate, allowing vein tips to attach to other veins creating vein loops. We explore several alternative functional forms for the flux bifurcator affecting the reallocation of efflux carriers and examine parameter dependence of the resulting vein pattern.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)235-244
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Theoretical Biology
Volume243
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 21 2006

Fingerprint

Indoleacetic Acids
Veins
plant veins
Pattern Formation
blood vessels
Blood Vessels
Leaves
Fluxes
Auxin
auxins
leaves
Hormones
Plant Leaves
Plant Growth Regulators
Model
Closed-loop
Carrier Proteins
plant vascular system
Herbivory
Cell

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Statistics and Probability
  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Applied Mathematics

Cite this

How canalization can make loops : A new model of reticulated leaf vascular pattern formation. / Feugier, François G.; Iwasa, Yoh.

In: Journal of Theoretical Biology, Vol. 243, No. 2, 21.11.2006, p. 235-244.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Feugier, François G. ; Iwasa, Yoh. / How canalization can make loops : A new model of reticulated leaf vascular pattern formation. In: Journal of Theoretical Biology. 2006 ; Vol. 243, No. 2. pp. 235-244.
@article{51d77e15278745b8acbaf366047ae91f,
title = "How canalization can make loops: A new model of reticulated leaf vascular pattern formation",
abstract = "Formation of the vascular system in plant leaves can be explained by the canalization hypothesis which states that veins are formed in an initially homogeneous field by a self-organizing process between the plant hormone auxin and auxin carrier proteins. Previous models of canalization can generate vein patterns with branching but fail to generate vein patterns with closed loops. However, closed vein loops are commonly observed in plant leaves and are important in making them robust to herbivore attacks and physical damage. Here we propose a new model which generates a vein system with closed loops. We postulate that the {"}flux bifurcator{"} level is enhanced in cells with a high auxin flux and that it causes reallocation of auxin carriers toward neighbouring cells also having a high bifurcator level. This causes the auxin flux to bifurcate, allowing vein tips to attach to other veins creating vein loops. We explore several alternative functional forms for the flux bifurcator affecting the reallocation of efflux carriers and examine parameter dependence of the resulting vein pattern.",
author = "Feugier, {Fran{\cc}ois G.} and Yoh Iwasa",
year = "2006",
month = "11",
day = "21",
doi = "10.1016/j.jtbi.2006.05.022",
language = "English",
volume = "243",
pages = "235--244",
journal = "Journal of Theoretical Biology",
issn = "0022-5193",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - How canalization can make loops

T2 - A new model of reticulated leaf vascular pattern formation

AU - Feugier, François G.

AU - Iwasa, Yoh

PY - 2006/11/21

Y1 - 2006/11/21

N2 - Formation of the vascular system in plant leaves can be explained by the canalization hypothesis which states that veins are formed in an initially homogeneous field by a self-organizing process between the plant hormone auxin and auxin carrier proteins. Previous models of canalization can generate vein patterns with branching but fail to generate vein patterns with closed loops. However, closed vein loops are commonly observed in plant leaves and are important in making them robust to herbivore attacks and physical damage. Here we propose a new model which generates a vein system with closed loops. We postulate that the "flux bifurcator" level is enhanced in cells with a high auxin flux and that it causes reallocation of auxin carriers toward neighbouring cells also having a high bifurcator level. This causes the auxin flux to bifurcate, allowing vein tips to attach to other veins creating vein loops. We explore several alternative functional forms for the flux bifurcator affecting the reallocation of efflux carriers and examine parameter dependence of the resulting vein pattern.

AB - Formation of the vascular system in plant leaves can be explained by the canalization hypothesis which states that veins are formed in an initially homogeneous field by a self-organizing process between the plant hormone auxin and auxin carrier proteins. Previous models of canalization can generate vein patterns with branching but fail to generate vein patterns with closed loops. However, closed vein loops are commonly observed in plant leaves and are important in making them robust to herbivore attacks and physical damage. Here we propose a new model which generates a vein system with closed loops. We postulate that the "flux bifurcator" level is enhanced in cells with a high auxin flux and that it causes reallocation of auxin carriers toward neighbouring cells also having a high bifurcator level. This causes the auxin flux to bifurcate, allowing vein tips to attach to other veins creating vein loops. We explore several alternative functional forms for the flux bifurcator affecting the reallocation of efflux carriers and examine parameter dependence of the resulting vein pattern.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33750006337&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33750006337&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jtbi.2006.05.022

DO - 10.1016/j.jtbi.2006.05.022

M3 - Article

C2 - 16887150

AN - SCOPUS:33750006337

VL - 243

SP - 235

EP - 244

JO - Journal of Theoretical Biology

JF - Journal of Theoretical Biology

SN - 0022-5193

IS - 2

ER -