Purpose: To identify the conflicts between a career as a surgeon and pregnancy and childbirth for women in Japan. Methods: The Japan Surgical Society conducted a nationwide survey on pregnancy and childbirth among its members who are women. The questionnaire included items regarding demography, working styles, and pregnancy and childbirth, including adverse events and harassment. Results: The response rate was 29.9% (1068 responses, median age, 37 years). Among the responders, 61% were married and 47% had children (average number of children, 1.7). Half of the respondents reported having experienced sexual harassment and 62% reported having received unwelcome comments about pregnancy. About 20% had undergone fertility treatment. In total, 51% had pregnancies, with miscarriages in 33% of these. The top answer for the best timing for pregnancy and childbirth was after becoming board-certified. Nearly one-third of first-time mothers experienced adverse events during pregnancy and delivery, and 28% quit or changed their job because of their pregnancy and the birth of their first child. Conclusions: Japanese women who choose a career as a surgeon face obstacles during pregnancy and childbirth. It is vital to share the findings of this study and understand the issues associated with pregnancy and childbirth regardless of gender. Interventions are essential to ensure that every pregnant surgeon has a safe working environment to allow unobstructed development of her career.
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