Human exposure to bisphenol A

Jeong Hun Kang, Fusao Kondo, Yoshiki Katayama

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

554 Citations (Scopus)


Bisphenol A (BPA), 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, is made by combining acetone and phenol. It has estrogenic activity and is acutely toxic to aquatic organisms. BPA is used mainly as a material for the production of epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics. Due to an increase in products based on epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics, human exposure to BPA has increased. The environment (aquatic environment, air and soil) can be one source of human BPA exposure, but the primary route of human exposure is foods. The daily human intake of BPA is <1 μg/kg body weight/day on the basis of several studies, and whether these doses can have an adverse endocrine disruptive effect on humans, especially fetuses, needs to be studied carefully.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)79-89
Number of pages11
Issue number2-3
Publication statusPublished - Sep 21 2006

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Toxicology

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