The 12CaO·7Al203 (C12A7) crystal with a nanoporous lattice framework exhibits high electrical conductivity with an activation energy of ∼ 1.5 eV when equilibrated in a hydrogen atmosphere above ∼800°C. The high conductivity is preserved in a quenched state below ∼600°C with a reduced activation energy of ∼0.8 eV, Such complex behavior in electrical conductivity is associated with incorporation of hydride ions (H-) in cages of the lattice framework. Electromotive force measurements reveal that the major carrier for the conductivity is electron with a small contribution by proton (H+), ruling out the possibility of direct intercage migration of the H- ion. A combination of these observations with the ab initio calculations leads to the conclusion that the electrons are thermally generated from the H- ion by the dissociation into two electrons and an proton, which is further converted to an OH- ion via reaction with an extraframework oxide ion (02-). The energy difference between the initial (H- + O2-) and the final (2e- + OH-) states as evaluated by the theoretical calculation is as small as ∼1 eV, which agrees well with an experimentally obtained enthalpy change, ∼1.4 eV. Thus, internal equilibration between the extraframework hydrogen and the oxygen species is responsible for the thermal generation of the carrier electron. It is also suggested that the same conductive (2e- + OH-) state is reached by the photoirradiation of H--containing C12A7. In this case the photoionization of H- forms an electron and an H o atom, which then forms an OH- ion and another electron with thermal assistance. The persistence of photoinduced conductivity is explained by the slow kinetics of the reverse process at room temperature.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry